How is water pollution measured in Malaysia?

The Department of Environment (DOE) uses Water Quality Index (WQI) and National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (NWQS) to evaluate the status of the river water quality [1]. … The river water quality was assessed based on a total of 5,083 samples taken from a total of 473 rivers.

How is water pollution measured?

Pollutants which are either dissolved or suspended in water are often measured or expressed in terms of “concentration,” typically milligrams per liter (mg/l) or micrograms per liter (µg/l).

How is water quality index calculated in Malaysia?

WQI = 0.22(siDO) + 0.19(siBOD) + 0.16(siCOD) + 0.15(siAN) + 0.16(siTSS) + 0.12(sipH) 621 Page 3 siDO-subindex is for dissolved oxygen, siBOD-subindex is for biochemical oxygen demand, siCOD-subindex is for chemical oxygen demand, siAN-subindex is for ammoniacal-nitrogen, siTSS-subindex is for total suspended solid.

How does Malaysia handle water pollution?

The adoption of eco-friendly farming and industrial practices, provision of extensive sewerage services and waste management systems, and strict enforcement, have reduced significantly point and non-point pollution sources. These measures have contributed to a reversal of trends in the pollution of water sources.

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What is Malaysia water quality Index?

Water Quality Index (WQI) – < 92.7. 76.5 – 92.7.

How do we measure the water?

For water that is in motion, cubic feet per second (cfs) is the unit of measure. For water that is stored or impounded, the acre-foot (af) is how water is measured. Cubic feet per second (cfs): * 1 cubic foot = 7.4805 gallons.

Is water pollution measured by BOD?

Abstract. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is the most important and widely used environmental index for monitoring organic pollutants in wastewater.

How is water quality calculated?

The WQI is calculated by averaging the individual index values of some or all of the parameters within five water quality parameter categories:

  1. Water clarity: turbidity (NTU*) and/or Secchi disk depth (meters or feet);
  2. Dissolved oxygen: Dissolved oxygen concentration (mg/l);

What is Class 3 water quality?

Class III Water Supply III – Extensive treatment required. Fishery III – Common, of economic value and tolerant species; livestock drinking.

What is the water hardness in Malaysia?

Is Malaysia Water Hard Or Soft? According to Wikipedia, water is classified as soft water when the hardness is below 60 mg/L. As a result, Malaysian water is predominantly considered soft with low levels of mineral content.

What kind of pollution is in Malaysia?

Air pollution in Malaysia falls into three main categories: air pollution due to exhaust gas from mobile emission sources such as motor vehicles, principally in urban areas; haze caused by the weather and by forest fires in neighboring Indonesia; and pollution caused by industrial activities.

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Who is responsible for water pollution in Malaysia?

The results revealed that 87% of the reviewed studies indicated urban land use as a major source of water pollution, while 82% indicated agricultural land use, 77% indicated forest land use, and 44% indicated other land uses.

Does Malaysia have clean water?

Improvements to Water and Sanitation in Malaysia

According to The World Health Organization/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program, reports taken in 2015 show that approximately 92 percent of Malaysian people have access to properly managed water supplies and 82 percent have access to hygienic sanitation services.

What is the meaning of water pollution and discuss categories of water pollution in Malaysia?

With regards to the water pollution, generally in Malaysia it is caused by point and non-point sources. Point sources comprise sewage treatment plants, manufacturing and agro-based industries as well as animal farms. Non-point sources are made up of diffused sources such as agricultural activities and surface runoffs.

How do the quality of river water in Malaysia is Categorised?

The results showed that temperature, pH, conductivity, TDS, SO4, and TH were classified as class I, while DO, turbidity, and BOD were categorized under class II, and NH3-N, TSS, COD, and OG were categorized as class III based on NWQS, Malaysia.

What is the pH of tap water in Malaysia?

Study by [32] reported pH levels in drinking water between 5.81 to 7.41 which were slightly acidic for some of the samples.